In modern age as the human society has got extended, like wise numerous types of problems have emerged in various shapes. The paper contains the preamble in the beginning with a detailed introduction about the Census. Likewise, the historical background and legal position of the Census has been highlighted. In the end, the aims and objectives have been added. To search out all these problems and formulate a possible solution of them is the not only the demand of time, but is a responsibility on the shoulder of ruling class. Before the solution, every problem requires to be scrutinized properly. This scrutiny in other words called the “Census”. The concept and inevitability of census in known and accept in every age. Every year, almost in all corners of the world, the process of Census is undergone under the supervision of the state. Now, it is considerable to note that is the concept and purpose of Census? Similarly what is its historical background? These questions have been answered in this research paper.