In this investigation, the extent to which the mathematics performance of Texas Grade 3 students differed by their economic status (i.e., Not Poor, Moderately Poor, and Very Poor) was addressed. Three mathematics indicators (i.e., Approaches, Meets, and Masters Grade Level) from the 2015- 2016 Texas state-mandated mathematics assessment were analyzed. Inferential statistical analyses revealed the presence of a clear stair step effect for all three measures of mathematics performance. As the poverty level of Texas Grade 3 students increased, their mathematics performance decreased. The higher the level of poverty, the fewer Grade 3 students were able to meet the passing standard on the Texas state-mandated mathematics assessment. Of note is that over than half of the Moderately Poor group and more than two thirds of the Very Poor group did not meet grade level standards in mathematics. Policy and practice implications were provided, along with recommendations for future research investigations